Linux too, hdparm, allows a system administrator to benchmark read performance of their drives. We ran this across three identical systems – all with Intel Xeon E3 processors, 32GB RAM and drives running in a RAID 1 array.
SATA HDD : 243 MB/sec
SATA SSD : 424 MB/sec
NVMe : 1726 MB/sec
You can see that SSD offers a significant speed benefit over HDD in terms of raw data transfer – 180MB/sec higher. But look at NVMe. More than 7x faster than the SATA HDD and an astonishing 4x faster than SATA SSD.
Running a random IO test with the benchmarking tool from Hidden Refuge:
SATA HDD : 69.8 MB/sec
SATA SSD : 277.3 MB/sec
NVMe : 533.3 MB/sec
Here the SSD absolutely trounces the HDD – almost 4x faster – but the NVMe comes in almost 2x as fast again. 7.6x faster than the HDD.